Monday, March 31, 2008

History of the English Language (3)

Old English

The invaders' Germanic language displaced the indigenous Brythonic languages of what became England. The Celtic languages remained in Scotland, Wales and Cornwall. The dialects spoken by the Anglo-Saxons formed what is now called Old English. Later, it was strongly influenced by the North Germanic language Norse, spoken by the Vikings who invaded and settled mainly in the northeast of England (see Jórvík and Danelaw). The new and the earlier settlers spoke languages from different branches of the Germanic family; many of their lexical roots were the same or similar, although their grammars were more distinct, including the prefix, suffix and inflection patterns for many of their words. The Germanic language of these Old English speaking inhabitants of Britain was influenced by contact with Norse invaders, which might have been responsible for some of the morphological simplification of Old English, including loss of grammatical gender and explicitly marked case (with the notable exception of the pronouns). The most famous surviving work from the Old English period is a fragment of the epic poem "Beowulf", by an unknown poet, though substantially modified, likely by one or more Christian clerics long after its composition.

The period when England was ruled by Anglo-Saxon kings, with the assistance of Anglo-Saxon clergy, was a period when the Old English language was alive and growing. Since it was used for legal, political, religious and other intellectual purposes, Old English coined new words from native Anglo-Saxon roots, rather than "borrowing" foreign words. (This point is made in a standard text, The History of the English Language, by Baugh.)

The introduction of Christianity added another wave of Latin and some Greek words.

The Old English period formally ended with the Norman conquest, when the language was influenced, to an even greater extent, by the Norman French-speaking Normans.

The use of Anglo-Saxon to describe a merging of Anglian and Saxon languages and cultures is a relatively modern development. According to Lois Fundis, (Stumpers-L, Fri, 14 Dec 2001) "The first citation for the second definition of 'Anglo-Saxon', referring to early English language or a certain dialect thereof, comes during the reign of Elizabeth I, from a historian named Camden, who seems to be the person most responsible for the term becoming well-known in modern times."


Sunday, March 30, 2008

History of the English Language (2)


The Germanic tribes who gave rise to the English language (the Angles, Saxons, Frisians, Jutes and perhaps even the Franks), traded with and fought with the Latin-speaking Roman Empire in the process of the Germanic invasion of Europe from the East. Many Latin words for common objects therefore entered the vocabulary of these Germanic people even before any of these tribes reached Britain; examples include camp, cheese, cook, fork, inch, kettle, kitchen, linen, mile, mill, mint (coin), noon, pillow, pin, pound, punt (boat), street, and wall. The Romans also gave English words which they had themselves borrowed from other languages: anchor, butter, chest, devil, dish, sack and wine.

According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, around the year 449, Vortigern, King of the Britons, invited the "Angle kin" (Angles led by Hengest and Horsa) to help him in conflicts with the Picts. In return, the Angles were granted lands in the southeast of England. Further aid was sought and in response "came men of Ald Seaxum of Anglum of Iotum" (Saxons, Angles and Jutes). The Chronicle talks of a subsequent influx of settlers who eventually established seven kingdoms, known as the heptarchy. Modern scholarship considers most of this story to be legendary and politically motivated and the identification of the tribes with the Angles, Saxons and Jutes is no longer accepted as an accurate description (Myres, 1986, p. 46ff), especially since the Anglo-Saxon language is more similar to Frisian than any single one of the others.


Writing Assistance

Writing dissertations is not an easy thing to do. It is time-consuming and sometimes makes the writers frustrated because they will not obtain a degree before this requirement is fulfilled. A dissertation basically contains a collection of scientific knowledge and many things that have been learned during study period.

Those who meet many difficulties in writing sometimes ask for other people's help to accomplish the task. Besides individuals, there are also some companies which specialize in accepting orders to write essays, research papers, and other kinds of writing. One of the good quality company is This company offers professional writing services and has a number of experts who are really experienced and skillful in writing. All orders can be accomplished quickly and accurately. People who buy essays here feel satisfied because customers' satisfaction becomes the priority of this company.

Saturday, March 29, 2008

History of the English Language (1)

English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers and Roman auxiliary troops from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Northern Netherlands. Initially, Old English was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms of England. One of these dialects, Late West Saxon, eventually came to dominate. The original Old English language was then influenced by two waves of invasion. The first was by language speakers of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family; they conquered and colonized parts of Britain in the 8th and 9th centuries. The second was the Normans in the 11th century, who spoke Old French and ultimately developed an English variety of this called Anglo-Norman. These two invasions caused English to become "mixed" to some degree (though it was never a truly mixed language in the strict linguistic sense of the word; mixed languages arise from the cohabitation of speakers of different languages, who develop a hybrid tongue for basic communication).

Cohabitation with the Scandinavians resulted in a significant grammatical simplification and lexical enrichment of the Anglo-Frisian core of English; the later Norman occupation led to the grafting onto that Germanic core of a more elaborate layer of words from the Romance branch of the European languages. This Norman influence entered English largely through the courts and government. Thus, English developed into a "borrowing" language of great flexibility and with a huge vocabulary.


Office Filing Cabinets and Bookcases

Working environment has a big impact on workers' performance and their satisfaction. Working environment itself consists of working atmosphere, safety, co-workers, the condition of office, office equipment, etc. Talking about office equipment cannot be separated from office furniture because it is very important. The good quality furniture will become an added value for the office. The people in the office will feel comfortable when they are working and the office itself will have a good image.

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Thursday, March 27, 2008

Tongue Twister (4)

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked.
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,
where is the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?

Private Number Plates

Every car must have a number plate which functions as an identity of the car. Some people use standard number plates while some others like to have their own private number plates. The latter usually feel bored to see the standard number plates and want to have more aesthetic for their cars.

If you want to have your own private plates but do not know how to start, you can visit This site provides service in making private number plates. You can see many kinds of interesting number plates with current styles. You can also choose prefix type personalized number plates. Before you start, maybe you can try to test by clicking here and there. The site gives some examples of number plates. Choose the type that you want. Then enter the initials and the name that you like or anything. Wait and see for the result! Satisfied with the result? Just order the number plate!

Thursday, March 20, 2008

Tips on Improving Speaking Skill

  • Practice your pronunciation. Listen to how native speakers pronounce English words. You can also consult with a dictionary having pronunciation guide.
  • Try to say what you see and feel in English.
  • Speak English with native speakers, English teachers, friends or anybody who can speak English. Don't worry about making mistakes.
  • Set up an English club. Discuss different topics in English. You can also practice speaking English by playing games.

Tips on Improving Listening Skill

  • Listen to cassettes or CDs containing English lessons.
  • Listen to English songs and try to write the lyrics.
  • Tune in radio stations broadcast in English, such as Kang Guru Radio English, BBC, Voice of America, and others.
  • Watch English movies. Don't read the subtitles. Listen carefully to what the actors/actresses are saying. Observe how they pronounce the words and learn the intonation.

Tips on Improving Writing Skill

  • Read any books teaching you English grammar and vocabulary usage.
  • Try to write your daily activities on your diary or in your computer. Express your feeling and all the facts in English.
  • When you are reading an English story or article, try to write the summary.
  • Practice writing articles, poems or short stories.
  • Write letters or e-mail to your friends in English.
  • Practice your English by giving comments or sending messages to your friends in English.

Tips on Improving Reading Skill

  • Read books, magazines, newspapers, and other materials written in English.
  • Try to grasp the general idea from your reading. Don't worry too much about the difficult words you may come across.
  • If you still have much time, go over the materials you've read. This time you should focus your attention on the difficult words.
  • Memorize those new words, pronounce them correctly, and make your own sentences by using those words.

Wednesday, March 19, 2008

The Girl I Met on the Trip (Part Three)

The bus was scheduled to arrive in Yogya at about 04.00 p.m. But, because of the bad roads, queuing at the seaport, and the traffic jam , the bus reached Umbulharjo terminal at 08.30 p.m. My brother-in-law had been waiting for me. And he helped me carry my bag into his car.
“I’m going, Bambang,” Lucy greeted me from a jeep. I didn’t know who drove the jeep. Maybe he was her brother, her cousin, or her boyfriend. I didn’t care!
“Yeah, see you.” I waved my right hand.

* * * * *

I had been staying here in Yogyakarta for three days. It was Saturday afternoon. I wanted to take a look at the well-known Malioboro Street. My brother-in-law offered to drive me around the city but I preferred to go alone. Besides, I had been familiar with Yogya. I wouldn't have a chance to get lost.
The weather was hot on Malioboro Street. There were loads of people walking around. The parking lot was full with cars and motorcycles. Becaks and andongs took a part in coloring the atmosphere. On this street I could see a number of foreigners with different kinds of skin. Something that I’d never witnessed before! Yeah, from magazines I’d ever read, I got some information that a lot of foreigners came to Yogya to learn Indonesian language and/or culture.
I tried not to miss every corner of the place. On the sidewalk some people sold T-shirts, bracelets, necklaces, etc. Then I walked again to see some products made of leather, like bags, wallets, and key holders. When I was absorbed in observing those things, I heard a soft voice calling out my name. I turned around. I was surprised to see Lucy along with a Caucasian man.
“What are you doing here?” Lucy asked.
“Just sightseeing.”
“Oh yeah, let me introduce you to my friend, John. John, this is Bambang.”
“Nice to meet you, John.”
“Nice to meet you, too, Bambang.”
“Uhm… do you wanna go with us, Bambang?”
“Where are you going?”
“We’re going some place where we can create great happiness.”
I didn’t really understand what Lucy meant. But I remembered having promised my elder sister to come back before 06.00 p.m. “I’m sorry, Lucy, I can’t go with you. I have something to do.”
“All right then. See you again some other time.”

* * * * *

As usual I watched crime news on TV at 11.30 a.m. The first news was about a murder of an old man committed by his son. I was so touched and at the same time shocked to see the fact how a son had a heart to kill his own father sadistically. The second news was about a couple of lovers who were arrested last night. According to the report, they were drug dealers who had done the job for two years. When the cameraman closed up the suspects, I was startled because I recognized their faces. They were Lucy and the guy who drove the jeep several days ago.Lucy… oh Lucy! Why did you do that? I’d never thought before that you were a drug dealer. You’d spent your youth for a temporary pleasure. Of course, nobody could hear the sound of my heart. I had nothing to do with Lucy. But still… the fact remained that I regretted what she had done!

The Girl I Met on the Trip (Part Two)

Our conversation stopped when the bus entered the parking lot of a restaurant. I glanced at my wristwatch. It was 01.30 p.m. The driver and his assistant got off the bus, followed by most of passengers including Lucy. Some passengers stayed in the bus, unwrapping the meal they brought from home. I myself kept sitting on my seat. I ate a small loaf of bread and drank a little mineral water. I wasn’t a kind of person who liked to eat and drink much during the trip. From the windshield of the bus I could see Lucy eating in the restaurant. Her pink-colored T-shirt and light blue jeans went well with her white skin. But then… oh! My admiration vanished instantly when I found her lighting a cigarette and smoked. I didn’t like to see people smoking, let alone a girl! She seemed to have gotten used to smoking.
After around thirty-minute break, the bus ran again. I didn’t know exactly how many kilometers this Mercedes bus had run. What I knew was that it had reached the Province of Lampung.
“Candies?” I offered Lucy as I took out some candies from my small bag.
“No, thanks,” the girl said politely.
“By the way, are you a student?” I asked after I put a candy into my mouth.
“Yes, I was. I used to be a university student but I quit.”
“You quit? How come?” I wondered.
“My parents couldn’t afford to finance my study,” Lucy explained. “Besides, I don’t think it useful to complete my study because … in fact, there are a lot of unemployed scholars in this country.”
“But I think you should have thought positively.” I tried to give my opinion. “Scholars find it very difficult to get a good job, moreover high school graduates.”
“You’re not wrong.” Lucy took out a sheet of tissue paper and swept her face. Then she furthered,”But, if we can get a job offering a large sum of money, why should we continue our study? People study to get a job, don’t they?”
“Yes.” I had no comment. “Hmm… Lucy, where do you work now?”
Hearing my question, Lucy looked a little awkward. But then she calmed herself down and said,”Uhm… I work as a sales representative in a manufacturing company.”
“How long have you been working there?”
“Almost two years.”
“Oh, two years. It means that you’ve had much experience.”
“Not really.”
The trip wasn’t comfortable this time. The road was in bad condition and it was raining cats and dogs. A truck was trapped in the middle of the road. Fortunately, there was still enough space for the bus to keep on crawling. The driver had turned on the lights since it was dusk. Meanwhile the driver’s assistant played the DVD player. The eyes of most passengers were directed to the TV monitor featuring a movie about a giant snake named Anaconda that liked to assault and swallow human beings. Some old women at the back cried out when they saw a scene where the snake attacked a man on the river.
Lucy felt asleep. Maybe the light from the monitor had made her sleepy. And I had a gut to wake her up when the bus dropped in at a restaurant. This time everybody got off the bus to have dinner. Actually I didn’t have a desire to eat, but I took a pity on my stomach singing all the time. Besides, I had to wash my face in the toilet of the restaurant. The toilet in the bus was too small and the water wasn’t fresh enough since it came from the air conditioner.
I felt fresh after I had eaten a small portion of rice with fried chicken and a glass of tea. Then I got on the bus. After all passengers had sat on their respective seat, the driver drove the bus.
At midnight the bus arrived at Bakauheni seaport. The bus had to stand in line, waiting for its turn to be carried by a ship. The driver got off the bus and had a chat with other drivers.
“Where are you going?” I asked Lucy when she was about to get off the bus.
“I’m going to meet my friend.”
“Your friend?” I asked in surprise. Before my question was answered, Lucy had been out of the bus.
I observed Lucy walking towards a building in the west. A man seemed to have been waiting for her. They talked for a moment. I didn’t know what they were talking about because their position was far from the bus and I just could see them in the dim light. Lucy took out something from her handbag and gave it to the man. Then she walked back to the bus.
Some passengers complained because it took so long for the bus to be carried by a ship. Maybe it was caused by holiday time. In the holiday time there were usually a lot of people who did traveling.
After about two hours’ waiting, the bus finally got its turn. During the sea travel most of passengers slept. I changed the position of my seat to make it comfortable. And then I closed my eyes. But I didn’t sleep. I just could hear an old man behind me snoring.
When the ship reached Merak seaport, I felt free because I could enjoy the scenery again. Although it was dark outside, at least, the light from the lamps and the moon did me good.
At dawn the bus reached Jakarta. What I saw here was very different from other places. On the left and right side of the motorway I spotted skyscrapers. I tried to keep awake although I was so sleepy. But then… I lost! I fell asleep. I woke up when the bus had been in West Java. The driver grumbled because of the traffic jam. After creeping for several kilometers, the bus passed by a traditional market. So, that was the center of the problem! I didn't know why the local government didn't make an effort to manage the market in such a way that it didn't cause the traffic jam. Or, maybe the government had done something, but the regulation they made wasn’t complied with.

* * * * *

The Girl I Met on the Trip (Part One)

The Girl I Met on the Trip
By Hendro Darsono

It was 10.00 a.m. The driver started to drive the big bus which was going to take me and other passengers to our destination, Yogyakarta. It was the third time for me to go to that ‘Student City’. And I always used the service of this public transportation company because the bus was comfortable and had some facilities, such as air conditioner, toilet, DVD player, blanket, and reclining seat. Due to this comfort, the long distance between Palembang and Yogyakarta didn`t appear to be a big problem.
As always, I sat in the front row, on the left. I like taking the seat number one since I could enjoy the scenery more freely. Besides, by sitting in the front row I could see the horizon. (According to medical experts, looking at the horizon can prevent us from the so-called ‘motion sickness’.)
The bus crept on the busy street of Palembang City. Then it climbed on the Ampera Bridge, the big and tall bridge which becomes the landmark of this ‘Empek-empek City’. After the bus had been away from the downtown, the driver seemed relieved since he could drive this big box faster.
I took off my favorite red hat and put it down on my lap. During the trip I spotted lots of new things that I couldn’t find in my hometown Palembang. The walks of life were frequently different from one place to another. On the left side of the road I saw well-organized rice fields. Some farmers were spraying pesticide and insecticide solution.
Then my eyes went to the girl sitting beside me. She had a beautiful face, straight, long and shining hair, and flawless skin. She was physically perfect! No sooner had I admired her beauty than she looked at me. For a split second I was at a loss and immediately distracted my eyes to the horizon. To disguise my being awkward, I looked back at her and tried to break the ice of silence.
“Are you going to Yogya?” I struck up the conversation. The question actually didn’t have to be answered because everybody in this bus knew that the bus was running to Yogya.
“Yes.” The girl replied curtly.
“Oh yeah, we haven’t introduced ourselves.” I extended my hand to shake her hand. “My name’s Bambang.”
“I’m Lucy.”
“Having vacation?” I asked.
“Not really. I just want to visit my friend.”
“Is it your first time to go to Yogya?” Again I asked the girl whom I thought to be one or two years younger than me.
“No, I’ve been there many times.”
“And you always go alone?”
“Yes.” Her beautiful round eyes stared at me. “What’s wrong with it?”
“No, no. There’s nothing wrong with it. I just think that a young and beautiful girl like you is so brave to take a long trip alone.”
“I’m not alone, as a matter of fact.” This time the girl smiled. The white teeth and thin lips illuminated her nice smile. “Look! There are a lot of people in the bus.”
“Yes, you’re right.” I didn`t want to debate with her.
“How about you?” Lucy asked back. “What do you go to Yogya for?”
“I’m going to spend my vacation. My elder sister happened to live there.”
“So, you’re a student?”
“Yes, I am. I’m a university student and I’m now in the seventh semester.”
“What’s your major?”
“I take up management.”
“Wanna be a director, eh?” Lucy grinned.
“Not really,” I replied calmly. “I just want to be able to manage a business well. Who knows, someday I have a chance to be an entrepreneur. In this crisis time, to land a good job isn’t an easy thing to do. Unemployment has become a serious problem. There are plenty of job hunters who compete with one another for a certain job. As far as I’m concerned, what they should do to overcome the problem is not by hunting the job, but by creating a job field.”
“Hmm… It seems to me that you’re an idealist.”
“No, I’m not a true idealist. But I try to get the hang of the reality.”
“But… creating a job isn’t easy either,” Lucy argued.
“Absolutely!” I was of the same opinion. “That’s what I study for. I know that the knowledge I get from the university isn’t just enough. Knowledge without experience can’t work well. So, I`ll try to learn from people who have enough experience.”

Seattle Language Academy

Learning foreign languages is interesting and challenging. It takes time and spirit. To master a foreign language well, we need to practice regularly because practice makes perfect. There are a lot of language schools which give English lessons and training. One of them is Seattle Language School which applies class and private tutoring.

As a non-profit language school, Seattle Language Academy provides students with high quality English lessons consisting of grammar, conversation, games, role-playing, etc. Students can study in individual classes or in group classes. In this school every student will get much attention from the experienced instructors because the number of students are only eight students per class, on average. For those who want to learn Italian Seattle, special classes are also provided from beginning through advanced levels.

Saturday, March 15, 2008


Jargon is a terminology that relates to a specific activity, profession or group. Much like slang, it develops as a kind of shorthand, to quickly express ideas that are frequently discussed between members of a group. In many cases a standard term may be given a more precise or specialized usage among practitioners of a field.

Jargon is used in several fields. They are among others:
  • Sports: One can find jargon just by watching a major league baseball broadcast, where commentators compete for the greatest density of technical sport terms and other sport-related metaphors.M
  • Medicine: Particularly in the operating room or under emergency conditions, particular jargons have developed that allow medical professionals to communicate quickly and effectively where common language would take much longer. This kind of jargon is also known as technical terminology.
  • Information Technology and the Internet: Computer and programming jargons used by computer scientists, programmers, system architects, enthusiasts and hackers to communicate. The proper usage of these words is sometimes considered a prerequisite for inclusion in these groups.

In some cases jargon is used to distinguish those belonging to a group from those who are not. This is sometimes called "insider" jargon. Those unfamiliar with a subject can often be tagged by their incorrect use of jargon. The use of jargon by outsiders is considered by insiders to be audacious, since it constitutes a claim to membership of the insider group.

The followings are some examples of jargon:
  • kick-off --> jargon in soccer field
  • orthography, rhyme, euphemism --> jargon in language
  • rolling, cut, action, stuntman, dubbing, shooting, properties --> jargon in movie making
  • jam session --> jargon in jazz music
  • troubleshooting, hacking, bad sector, recovery--> jargon in computer


Rolands Gifts

Home is where the heart is. We can get together with our family and enjoy our activities at home. Although someone has a good job out of town or is now living abroad for studying or for working, he/she will miss the atmosphere of his/her home so much. He/she will have a huge desire to return home.

The size of the houses is different between one person and another. But there is one similarity of the owners' expectation: they want to have a beautiful and cozy house. To reach this goal, they paint their house with their favorite colors, they make a garden to be the place for them to relax, they design the building of their house, especially the walls, the windows, and the doors, in such a way that it looks so interesting. In the front part of the house, the owner usually puts up an address plaque. This plaque will contain the number of the house or other information which can allow the postmen or the friends of the house owner to find the house easily. To make it more elegant, they can design their own address plaques with beautiful writing and image/picture. So, it will be eye-catching. The materials of the plaques can be choosen from the common quality materials to high quality materials, depending on their budget.

In the doorway there is usually a doormat. So, you can leave your dirty slippers, sandals, or shoes there. Some people like to use personalized doormats with various kinds of materials and designs. If you cannot make your own doormats, you can buy in the market or making an order. For example, you can visit Here you can find many kinds of beautifully-designed doormats. As a matter of fact, this site offers not only doormats but also other kinds of housewarming gifts. Just browse the site and find the suitable ones for you. Your order will be fulfilled for a certain period of time, depending on the products and the total number of products you have ordered. If you purchase or order in a large volume, you will get special discounts.

Sunday, March 9, 2008

Padanan Awalan re-

Membanjirnya kata asing ke dalam bahasa Indonesia tidak dapat dihindari. Salah satu cara memperlakukan kata asing itu adalah dengan menerjemahkannya. Cukup banyak kata asing yang menggunakan awalan re-, seperti retry, review, rewrite, dan rescheduling. Awalan ini dapat kita padankan dengan kata ulang. Berikut padanan sejumlah kata asing yang berawalan re-.

  • reengineering --> rekayasa ulang
  • refinancing --> pembiayaan ulang
  • remapping --> pemetaan ulang
  • rematch --> tanding ulang
  • rescheduling --> penjadwalan ulang
  • review --> kaji ulang
  • restore --> simpan ulang
  • retry --> coba ulang
  • rewrite --> tulis ulang

Di samping dapat dipadankan dengan 'ulang', awalan re- juga dapat dipadankan dengan 'kembali'. Berikut ini contohnya.

  • recall --> penarikan kembali
  • reconfirmation --> penegasan kembali
  • reusable --> terpakai kembali

Sumber: Lembar Komunikasi No. 5/XVIII/2004