Friday, April 27, 2007


Definition of Morpheme

Morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit which has a meaning or grammatical function. Some words are not composed of other morphemes, for example, car, spider, and race. But, they are also morpheme since they cannot be broken down into smaller meaningful parts.
A morpheme may be represented by a single sound, a single syllable or more than one syllable.

For example:

Girl girl (one morpheme)
Books book + -s (two morphemes)
Underdevelopment under- + develop + -ment (three morphemes)
Undesirability un- + desir (e) + -abl (e) + -ity ( four morphemes)

A morpheme ( the minimal linguistics sign ) is thus a grammatical unit in which there is an arbitrary union of sound and a meaning that cannot be further analyzed.

Kind of Morphemes:

1. Free Morpheme

Morpheme which are also words are called free morpheme since they can stand alone, such as boy, girl, and car.

Types of free morpheme:

-Lexical: Have semantic content and can be added to in the lexicon (open class)
Verbs : sweep
Adverb : extremely
Adjectives : enough
Nouns : sand

-Function words: Provide info about grammatical function and cannot be added to in the lexicon (closed class)
Prepositions : on, in, at
Articles : a, an
Conjuctions : eventhough, as if, so
Pronouns : he, she, it
Demonstrative : this, that
Interjection : ugh, ah

2.Bound Morpheme

A morpheme which is never used alone but must be used with another morpheme.
Affix is a bound morpheme which is added to a word and which changes the meaning or function of the word.

Kinds of Affix:

a. Prefixes
bound morphemes which occur before other morphemes. For example, anti-, bi-, dis-, un-, non-, -re, etc.

b. Infixes
bound morphemes which are inserted into other morphemes. For example, friggin, bloody.

c. Suffixes
bound morphemes which occur after other morphemes. For example, -able, -ful, -ation, -ship.

Function of bound morphemes

Change the meaning or part of speech
For example, un- in unpleasant creates a new word with opposite meaning of pleasant.
The suffix –ness in quickness, changes the part of speech of quick, an adjective into a noun, quickness.

Inflectional :
The morpheme which serve a purely grammatical function, never creating a new word but only different form of the same word such.
For example, walk (verb) + ed = walked (verb).

(Contributed by Mifta Azzahra)

Sunday, April 22, 2007

Must & Have To

‘Must’dan ‘Have to’ artinya ‘harus’ dalam bahasa Indonesia. Dari sisi pemakaian, kedua kata ini memiliki sedikit perbedaan.

‘Must’ digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu keharusan yang biasanya bersifat internal. Artinya, keharusan itu berasal atau datang dari dalam diri sendiri. Sementara itu, ‘have to’ digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu keharusan yang bersifat eksternal. Artinya, keharusan itu tidak datang dari diri sendiri, melainkan karena adanya faktor-faktor atau aturan-aturan dari luar diri yang mengharuskan kita melakukan sesuatu.
Sorry, I can’t come to your house. I must wash my father’s car.
Sorry, I can’t come to your house. I have to wash my father’s car.

Pada kalimat pertama, saya mencuci mobil ayah saya karena saya merasa itu kewajiban saya sendiri untuk membantu ayah saya. Pada kalimat kedua, terkandung makna bahwa saya mencuci mobil ayah saya bukan karena keharusan dari diri saya sendiri, tetapi karena ayah saya menyuruh saya melakukannya.

Jika subjek kalimat bukan ’I’, itu berarti bahwa si pembicara mengharapkan atau memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu.
You must study hard.
You must do your homework and submit it on time.

Friday, April 20, 2007

Popular Proverb (1)

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

  • Harapkan burung terbang tinggi punai di tangan dilepaskan.
  • Mendapatkan sesuatu yang kecil jauh lebih baik daripada mengharapkan sesuatu yang besar namun belum pasti.

Friday, April 13, 2007

Reading: Save Your Words

A chatter box could be very boring. He or she never runs out of topics. Anywhere and anytime, he or she will talk about anything. We don’t have a chance to interrupt nor to respond. We can do nothing but listen. Most of us have been through such a situation.

The following tips are about how to talk effectively and how to avoid becoming a chatter box.In our daily life, it is inevitable that we meet people with different characters. Each of them has his or her own style and manner in having conversation. Some are talkative, some are quiet, and some others are bossy.

To be a good speaker or conversationalist is not easy. Therefore, this article offers suggestions on becoming a better conversationalist. What is a good conversationalist and how can we become one? To become a good speaker, we have to pay attention to some important points of conversation.

Poh Ai Lin in The art of Conversing puts forward seven points for us to take into account in a conversation. They are as follows:

  1. A good conversationalist is not a person who knows what to say and when to say it. He or she has to learn other social communication skill as well.
  2. Talking continuously is not the idea of successful conversation. Being a considerate and active listener is equally crucial. It takes two to converse. We need to talk as well as to listen.
  3. Express your idea or opinion moderately. Do not sound as if you knew everything. If you have to talk about yourself, do it in moderation.
  4. Avoid being gush. To praise is necessary but do not overdo it. If not, you will sound pretentious.
  5. Avoid being bossy. An attitude of superiority will soon leave you in isolation.
  6. Stay focus. Avoid being too flowery. A person who lacks focus and is easily out of the track could be extremely annoying.
  7. Read your partner’s gestures. Sighs, increasingly longer pauses, restlessness, decreased eye contact and gradual distancing are indications that your partner wants to end the conversation.

There are a lot more to learn to become a good conversationalist. Hoperfully the above tips will be of much help to all of us.

(My article above was published in Dialogue English Magazine No. 1/XXII/1997)


  • chatter box : orang yang banyak omong/cerewet
  • boring : membosankan
  • run out of : kehabisan
  • chance : kesempatan
  • through : melalui
  • avoid : menghindari
  • inevitable : tak dapat dihindari
  • offer : menawarkan
  • take into account : mempertimbangkan
  • attitude : sikap
  • gradual : lambat laun, secara perlahan

Thursday, April 12, 2007

Dialog: Talking aboout English Proverbs

Renny : Can you help me, Ria?
Ria : Yes. What can I do for you?
Renny : I have a problem in English proverbs. I read an English magazine and in the magazine there are several English proverbs. I can’t understand what those proverbs really mean. So, can you explain them to me?
Ria : Okay, I’ll try to help you. What are the proverbs?
Renny : The first proverb is ‘Make hay while the sun shines’.
Ria : Oh, that is a very popular proverb. It means that we must prepare ourselves as well as possible for any possibility which might happen. In Indonesian language there is an equivalent proverb, i.e. ‘Sedia payung sebelum hujan’. What is the next proverb?
Renny : The next proverb is ‘It’s no use crying over the spilt milk’.
Ria : This proverb implies that we shouldn’t regret what has happened.
Renny : Is there an equivalent proverb in Indonesian language?
Ria : Yes, there is. I’m sure you often hear this proverb ‘Nasi telah menjadi bubur’.
Renny : Oh so… I see. Can I ask you another English proverb?
Ria : Go ahead.
Renny : Uhm… let me see. Here it is… ‘Birds of a feather flock together’.
Ria : This proverb means that we tend to make friends with people who have the same hobby, taste, habit, idea or ambition.
Renny : Oh… great! You really master English proverbs, Ria. Can you tell me how to know and understand more about English proverbs?
Ria : It’s easy. I have a book entitled English Proverbs and Quotations by Hendro Darsono. In this book there are around 300 popular English proverbs and 100 wise words or quotations from a number of public figures: politicians, artists, athletes, scientists, etc. I read this book almost every day. I can increase my English knowledge. Besides that, the wise words in this book can encourage me to do good things and to think positively.
Renny : May I borrow the book? I want to know more about English proverbs.
Ria : Of course, you may. But I think you must also buy this book to add to your English book collection.
Renny : Yes, I’ll buy this book next week after I get money from my parents.
Ria : By the way, how is your boyfriend Andre?
Renny : We broke up last month. So, I don’t know where and how he is now. I want to forget all about him.
Ria : Yeah, let bygones be bygones.
Renny : Hey, what does it mean, Ria?
Ria : This is also a proverb. It means ‘Biarlah yang lalu tetap berlalu’.
Renny : Yes, you’re right. Let bygones be bygones.

Wednesday, April 11, 2007


Interjection (Interjeksi) adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu perasaan yang kuat, seperti kekaguman, rasa sakit, atau kegembiraan.

Hurrah! (Hore!)
Alas! (Aduh!)
Oh! (Oh!)
Aha! (Aha!)
Gee! (Ih!)
Ouch! (Aduh!)
Wow! (Wow!)
Yuck! (Ih... menjijikkan!)
yummy! (Enaknya!)

Contoh kalimat:
Hurrah! He's coming.
Alas! I cut my finger.
Yummy! I like this food!


Conjunction (konjungsi) adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua kata atau kalimat secara bersama-sama.

Konjungsi ada dua jenis, yaitu:

1. Coordinating Conjunction
and (dan)
or (atau)
but (tetapi)

2. Subordinating Conjunction
when (ketika)
while (selagi, sementara, sedangkan, sambil)
until/till (hingga, sampai)
after (setelah)
before (sebelum)
if (jika)
unless (jika ... tidak)
otherwise (jika tidak)
because (karena, sebab)
since (karena, sebab)
as (karena, ketika, sebagaimana, seperti)
though/although/even though (meskipun, walaupun)
as if/as though (seolah-olah, seakan-akan)

Contoh kalimat:
He is poor but he is happy.
Although he is poor, he is happy.
She couldn't attend the meeting because she was sick.
He will be happy if you come to his house.

Monday, April 9, 2007


Preposition (preposisi) adalah kata yang berada di depan nomina atau pronomina yang biasanya untuk menyatakan posisi atau hal-hal tertentu

Berikut ini adalah sejumlah contoh preposisi yang sangat sering dipergunakan untuk bahasa Inggris sehari-hari:
in (di, di dalam)
on (di, di atas)
at (di, pada)
beside (di samping)
behind (di belakang)
under (di bawah)
between (di antara)
after (setelah)
before (sebelum)
with (dengan)
without (tanpa)
about (kira-kira, tentang, mengenai)
by (dengan, oleh, dekat)
to (untuk, ke)
for (untuk, bagi, selama)
from (dari)
during (selama)
through (melalui)

Contoh kalimat:
I am sitting between Santi and susan.
She lives in Jakarta.
The boys are hiding behind the car.


Adverb (adverbia) adalah kata yang menerangkan verba, adjektiva, atau adverbia lainnya.

She dances beautifully.
Beautifully adalah adverbia yang menerangkan verba 'dances'.

This orange is very sour.
Very adalah adverbia yang berfungsi menerangkan adjektiva 'sour'.

Budi runs very fast.
Very dalam kalimat ini adalah adjektiva yang menerangkan adverbia 'fast'.


Adjective (Adjektiva) adalah kata yang berfungsi untuk menerangkan nomina.

She is a beautiful girl.
Beautiful adalah adjektiva yang berfungsi menerangkan nomina 'girl'.

The topic is very interesting, so I don't want to miss it.
Interesting adalah adjektiva yang berfungsi menerangkan kata 'the topic'.

Sunday, April 8, 2007


Verb (verba) adalah kata yang menyatakan suatu aksi atau tindakan.

Jenis-jenis verba adalah sebagai berikut:
  1. Transitive Verb, yaitu verba yang membutuhkan objek. Misalnya catch, find, put, send, dan show.
  2. Intransitive Verb, yaitu verba yang tidak membutuhkan objek. Misalnya, arrive, come, go, rise, dan sleep.
  3. Verbs of Incomplete Predication, yaitu verba yang membutuhkan pelengkap (complement) untuk melengkapi artinya. Misalnya, verba to be (am, is, are, was, were, been, be), verba taste, appear, become, remain, dan seem.

Contoh kalimat:

The cat is catching the mouse. (transitive verb)

The sun rises in the east. (intransitive verb)

The food tastes delicious. (verb of incomplete predication)

Saturday, April 7, 2007


Pronoun (pronomina) adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menggantikan nomina.

Pronomina ada beberapa macam:

1. Subjective Pronouns, yaitu I, you, we, they, he, she, it
Pronomina ini berfungsi sebagai subjek kalimat.
Contoh: I like fried chicken.
She wrote several stories.

2. Objective Pronouns, yaitu me, you, us, them, him, her, it
Pronomina ini berfungsi sebagai objek kalimat.
Contoh: My uncle gave me some money.
The boys admire her so much.

3. Possessive Adjective, yaitu my, your, our, their, his, her, its
Pronomina ini berfungsi sebagai kepemilikan.
Contoh: I like your hat.
She showed me her photograph.

4. Possessive Pronoun, yaitu mine, yours, ours, theirs, his, hers, its.
Pronomina ini berfungsi sebagai kepemilikan. Bendanya tidak disebutkan lagi karena sudah
dimengeri atau sudah disebutkan sebelumnya.
Contoh: Whose car is it? Oh, it's mine.
This is my book and that one is yours.


Noun (nomina) adalah kata yang digunakan sebagai nama benda, orang, hewan, tempat, dan konsep atau ide.

Nomina ada dua jenis, yaitu:
  1. Concrete Noun
  2. Absrtact Noun

Yang termasuk dalam Concrete Noun adalah:

  1. Proper Noun, yaitu nomina yang berupa nama diri dan dalam penulisannya dimulai dengan huruf kapital (huruf besar). Contoh: John, Jakarta, New York, Indonesia.
  2. Common Noun, yaitu nomina umum atau nomina yang biasa kita temui sehari-sehari, seperti table, chair, teacher, student, computer, and car.
  3. Material Noun, yaitu nomina yang beasal dari bahan tambang atau bahan baku lainnya. Contoh: copper, oil, coal, gold, and silver.
  4. Collective Noun, yaitu nomina dalam bentuk kumpulan atau kelompok. Contoh: cattle, crew, group, team, and fleet.

Yang termasuk dalam Abstract Noun adalah nomina yang menyatakan konsep, gagasan atau sesuatu yang tidak berwujud, seperti beauty, development, hunger, organization, poverty, and skill.

Friday, April 6, 2007

Emile Poulsson: Book

Books are keys to wisdom's treasure.
Books are gates to lands of pleasure.
Books are paths that upward lead.
Books are friends. Come, let us read.
(Emile Poulsson)
Buku adalah kunci menuju khasanah kebijaksanaan.
Buku adalah gerbang menuju tanah kesenangan.
Buku adalah jalan yang mengarah ke atas.
Buku adalah sahabat. Ayo, marilah kita baca.

Parts of Speech

Dalam bahasa Inggris ada 8 jenis kata (parts of speech) yang harus diketahui. Kedelapan jenis kata tersebut adalah sebagai berikut:
  1. Noun (Nomina/Kata Benda)
  2. Pronoun (Pronomina/Kata Ganti)
  3. Verb (Verba/Kata Kerja)
  4. Adjective (Adjektiva/Kata Sifat)
  5. Adverb (Adverbia/Kata Keterangan)
  6. Preposition (Preposisi/Kata Depan)
  7. Conjunction (Konjungsi/Kata Penghubung)
  8. Interjection (Interjeksi/Kata Seru)

Untuk pembahasan lebih lanjut mengenai jenis-jenis kata tersebut, Anda dapat membacanya pada bagian-bagian mendatang.